Which factor influences the effects of teratogens quizlet?
The impact of teratogens varies with amount and length of exposure, genetic make-up of mother and fetus, presence of other harmful agents, and age of the organism. The developing organism is especially vulnerable during the embryonic period.
What three things affect the damage of teratogens?
This page describes harmful substances, called teratogens, which a woman should avoid during pregnancy. These include certain chemicals, medications, social drugs, alcohol, smoking, and infections.
What causes teratogenic?
Teratogenic agents include infectious agents (rubella, cytomegalovirus, varicella, herpes simplex, toxoplasma, syphilis, etc.); physical agents (ionizing agents, hyperthermia); maternal health factors (diabetes, maternal PKU); environmental chemicals (organic mercury compounds, polychlorinated biphenyl or PCB.
What are the five general principles concerning the effects of teratogens on prenatal development?
In considering the effects of drugs on pregnancy, it is important to remember the 6 principles of teratology: genetic susceptibility, development stage, mechanisms, end points, access, and dose response.
Is caffeine a teratogen?
In humans, caffeine does not present any teratogenic risk. The increased risk of the most common congenital malformations entailed by moderate consumption of caffeine is very slight.
What are 4 teratogens?
Teratogens are classified into four types: physical agents, metabolic conditions, infection, and finally, drugs and chemicals.
What is the most commonly used teratogen?
Alcohol: One of the most commonly used teratogens is alcohol, and because half of all pregnancies in the United States are unplanned, it is recommended that women of child-bearing age take great caution against drinking alcohol when not using birth control or when pregnant (CDC, 2005).
Is stress a teratogen?
Maternal psychological stress has essentially been conceptualized as a teratogen, that is, an agent that can generate deleterious perinatal and/or developmental outcomes.
What happens to baby when mom is stressed?
High levels of stress that continue for a long time may cause health problems, like high blood pressure and heart disease. During pregnancy, stress can increase the chances of having a premature baby (born before 37 weeks of pregnancy) or a low-birthweight baby (weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces).
How much should hCG rise in 24 hours?
In most normal pregnancies at an hCG level below 1,200 mIU/ml, the hCG usually doubles every 48-72 hours. At levels below 6,000 mIU/ml, the hCG levels normally increase by at least 60% every 2-3 days.
Can dehydration cause slow rising hCG levels?
Complications & Side Effects of Dehydration during Pregnancy It’s believed some women experience spotting when dehydrated, as their hCG levels temporarily stop increasing, or dip. Once re-hydration is reached, hCG levels level out and spotting may stop.
What is a good first hCG level?
It is used to diagnose pregnancy and a result greater than 5 mIU/mL is generally considered positive. The hCG level has to rise appropriately (it doubles every 3 days or so in early pregnancy) till it reaches around 1500 mIU/mL.